Third Generation (3G) - A new wireless standard promising increased capacity and high-speed data applications up to two megabits. Third generation wireless employ wideband frequency carriers and a CDMA air interface. Networks must be able to transmit wireless data at 144 kilobits per second at mobile user speeds. Implemented in Europe as UMTS and CDMA2000 in North America, its goals are high-quality multimedia and advanced global roaming (in house, cellular, satellite, etc.).
WAP is an open international standard for applications that use wireless communication. Its principal application is to enable access to the Internet from a mobile phone or PDA.
A WAP browser is to provide all of the basic services of a computer based web browser but simplified to operate within the restrictions of a mobile phone. WAP is now the protocol used for the majority of the world's mobile internet sites, known as WAP sites. The Japanese i-mode system is currently the only other major competing wireless data protocol.
Mobile internet sites, or WAP sites, are websites written in, or dynamically converted to, WML (Wireless Markup Language) and accessed via the WAP browser.
Before the introduction of WAP, service providers had extremely limited opportunities to offer interactive data services. Interactive data applications are required to support now commonplace activities such as:
email by mobile phone tracking of stock market prices sports results news headlines music downloads
Multimedia Messaging Service An enhanced transmission service that enables graphics, video clips and sound files to be transmitted via cellphones. Developed as part of the 3GPP project, MMS phones are generally backward compatible with SMS and EMS.
Methods of delivery There are two modes of delivery in MMS: immediate or deferred:
Immediate delivery: When the MMS client on the mobile phone receives the MMS notification, it then immediately (without user intervention or knowledge) retrieves the MMS message from the Multimedia Messaging Service Center (MMSC) that sent the notification. After retrieval, the subscriber is alerted to the presence of a newly arrived MMS message.
Deferred delivery: The MMS client alerts the subscriber that an MMS message is available, and allows the subscriber to choose if and when to retrieve the MMS message. As with the MMS submission, the MMS retrieval request, whether immediate or deferred, occurs with an HTTP request. The MMSC responds by transmitting the MMS message in an HTTP response to the MMS client, after which the subscriber is finally alerted that the MMS message is available.
The essential difference between immediate and deferred delivery is that the former hides the network latencies from the subscriber, while the latter does not. Immediate or deferred delivery are handset dependent modes, which means that the handset manufacturer can provide the handset in one mode or the other or let the user decide his/her preference
A Short Message Service Center (SMSC) is a network element in the mobile telephone network which delivers SMS messages. Operation When a user sends a text message (SMS message) to another user, the message gets stored in the SMSC which delivers it to the destination user when they are available. This is a store and forward operation. The SMSC usually has a configurable time limit for how long it will store the message, and users can usually specify a shorter time limit if they want.
A message may also come from an application, for example voice mail server sending voice mail incoming message alerts. Mobile operators allow businesses to interact with their SMSC to submit the messages in bulk. From SMSC point of view, such applications are called SME (Short Message Entities). In this case the SMSC is responsible for locating SMSC of the destination user and submitting the message there.
A value-added service (VAS) is a telecommunications industry term for non-core services or, in short, all services beyond standard voice calls. On a conceptual level, value-added services add value to the standard service offering, spurring the subscriber to use their phone more and allowing the operator to drive up their ARPU. For mobile phones, while technologies like SMS, MMS and GPRS are usually considered value-added services, a distinction may also be made between standard (peer-to-peer) content and premium-charged content.
Value-added services are supplied either in-house by the mobile network operator themselves or by a third-party value-added service provider (VASP). VASPs typically connect to the operator using protocols like Short message peer-to-peer protocol (SMPP), connecting either directly to the short message service centre (SMSC) or, increasingly, to a messaging gateway that allows the operator to control and charge of the content better.
Short codes - also known as short numbers or Common Short Codes (CSC) - are special telephone numbers, significantly shorter than full telephone numbers, which can also be used to address SMS and MMS messages from mobile phones or fixed phones. They are designed to be shorter to read out and easier to remember than normal telephone numbers. While similar to telephone numbers, they are, at the technological level, unique to each operator, although providers generally have agreements to avoid overlaps. Short codes are widely used for value-added services such as television voting, ordering ringtones, charity donations and mobile services (such as Google's SMS search service and 57272). Messages sent to short code numbers are generally billed at a higher rate than a standard SMS.
Short messages may be used to provide premium rate services to subscribers of a telephone network.
Mobile terminated short messages can be used to deliver digital content such as news alerts, financial information, logos and ring tones. The VASP providing the content submits the message to the mobile operator's SMSC(s) using a TCP/IP protocol such as the Short message peer-to-peer protocol (SMPP) or the External Machine Interface (EMI). The SMSC delivers the text using the normal Mobile Terminated delivery procedure. The subscribers are charged extra for receiving this premium content, and the amount is typically divided between the mobile network operator and the value added service provider (VASP) either through revenue share or a fixed transport fee.
Mobile originated short messages may also be used in a premium-rated manner for services such as televoting. In this case, the VASP providing the service obtains a Short Code from the telephone network operator, and subscribers send texts to that number. The submission of the text to the SMSC is identical to a standard MO Short Message submission, but once the text is at the SMSC, the Service Centre identifies the Short Code as a premium service. The SC will then direct the content of the text message to the VASP, typically using an IP protocol such as SMPP or EMI. Subscribers are charged a premium for the sending of such messages, with the revenue typically shared between the network operator and the VASP.
According to Wikipedia WAP Push messages are SMS messages that alert the user, and allow the user to open the URL sent.
WAP Push, has been incorporated into the specification to allow WAP content to be pushed to the mobile handset with minimum user intervention. A WAP Push is basically a specially encoded message which includes a link to a WAP address. WAP Push is specified on top of WDP; as such, it can be delivered over any WDP-supported bearer, such as GPRS or SMS.
In most GSM networks, however, GPRS activation from the network is not generally supported, so WAP Push messages have to be delivered on top of the SMS bearer. On receiving a WAP Push, a WAP 1.2 or later enabled handset will automatically give the user the option to access the WAP content.
They are of crucial importance in mobile distribution. They allow users to supply their phone number and be sent a link to a WML page, XHTML page, a J2ME application, or on higher end handsets they allow the user to download a fully featured application.
There are two types of WAP push message: Service Indication (SI) and Service Load (SL). Service Indication messages contain a URI, a text string, a unique identifier and an action parameter: effectively, they present the URI and text string to the mobile device user and ask them if they would like to visit it. Service Load messages omit the text string; originally the intention was for the device to download the URI automatically, but for security reasons few devices do so. SI messages are therefore more common as they contain a text string.
M-learning, or "mobile learning", now commonly abbreviated to "mLearning", has different meanings for different communities. The term covers:
learning with portable technologies, where the focus is on the technology (which could be in a fixed location, such as a classroom); learning across contexts, where the focus is on the mobility of the learner, interacting with portable or fixed technology; learning in a mobile society, with a focus on how society and its institutions can accommodate and support the learning of an increasingly mobile population. Although related to e-learning and distance education, it is distinct in its focus on learning across contexts and learning with mobile devices. One definition of mobile learning is: Learning that happens across locations, or that takes advantage of learning opportunities offered by portable technologies.
Growth Over the past ten years mobile learning has grown from a minor research interest to a set of significant projects in schools, workplaces, museums, cities and rural areas around the world. The mLearning community is still fragmented, with different national perspectives, differences between academia and industry, and between the school, higher education and lifelong learning sectors.
Current areas of growth include: Location-based and contextual learning Design of physical spaces (including campuses, conferences, hotel lobbies, cities) to support learning with a mixture of mobile and fixed technologies Social-networked mobile learning Mobile educational gaming "Lowest common denominator" mLearning to cellular phones using two way SMS messaging and voice-based CellCasting (podcasting to phones with interactive assessments)
Scope The scope of mobile learning includes:
Children and students using handheld computers, PDAs or handheld voting systems in a classroom or lecture room. Students using mobile devices in the classroom to enhance group collaboration among students and instructors using a Pocket PC. On the job training for someone who accesses training on a mobile device "just in time" to solve a problem or gain an update. Learning in museums or galleries with handheld or wearable technologies Learning outdoors, for example on field trips. The use of personal technology to support informal or lifelong learning, such as using handheld dictionaries and other devices for language learning. See m-learning trials conducted in the UK
Challenges Technical challenges include:
Connectivity Battery life Interacting with small devices Displaying useful content in small-screen devices Social and educational challenges include:
The intrusion of formal education into daily life: Protecting the privacy of young learners, from being continually monitored and assessed through their mobile devices. How to assess learning outside the classroom How to support learning across many contexts Developing an appropriate theory of learning for the mobile age Design of technology to support a lifetime of learning
MobShare is the short form of Mobile Sharing. MobShare is an open platform for users to upload images, videos, audio files, write text blogs and share it with the world. There are multiple options for upload. You can either send content directly from a mobile handset as an MMS, or you can even email them once you have transferred the same to your computer. The system allows editing and personalizing your content once it is uploaded. A visitor has the privilege of rating the content according to his likings and even send a comment on it. MobShare also allows you to create a social network of friends among whom you want to share your content.
www.MobShare.in is a typical example of a MobShare service that is available for Indian users.
MoVlog is the short form of mobile video blog. It is basically a combination of the terms moblog and vlog.
The term 'movlog' can be used either as a noun or as a verb. As a noun, it refers to the actual blog that contains video entries. As a verb, it refers to the act of video blogging using a mobile device (e.g., cellphones and PDAs).
Moblog is a blend of the words mobile and weblog. A mobile weblog, or Moblog, consists of content posted to the Internet from a mobile or portable device, such as a cellular phone or PDA. Moblogs generally involve technology which allows publishing from a mobile device.
Much of the earliest development of Moblogs occurred in Japan, among the first countries in the world where camera phones (portable phones with built-in cameras) were widely commercially available.
According to Joi Ito's History of Moblogs, the first post to the web from a mobile user was from Steve Mann in 1995. He used a wearable computer, a more elaborate predecessor to modern Moblogging devices. The first post to the Internet from an ordinary mobile device is believed to be by Tom Vilmer Paamand in Denmark in May 2000.
The term "Moblogging" itself was coined by Adam Greenfield to describe the practice in 2002. He went on to organise the First International Moblogging Conference (or 1IMC) in July 2003 in Tokyo, with the help of Paul Baron, Gen Kanai, Carsten Schwesig and Steve Graff. Less known about is the First International Love Hotel Moblogging Conference that took place a day before the real 1IMC event.
The term is sometimes pronounced with the emphasis on the first syllable - MOBlog - out of affinity with the ideas about social self-organization developed in Howard Rheingold's "Smart Mobs".
Weblogs made from portable devices are also sometimes known as cyborgLogs, abbreviated as 'glogs, especially when primarily image-based.
Illicit and taboo activities have proven popularity in some early Moblog experiments, while family-oriented moblogs may be soon implementing advanced filter controls. See Drewing for more information about the delinquency publishing fad.
In 2004, Singapore launched a National Day Moblog on National Day. Apparently, it is the first national Moblog in the world.
Early on in Moblogging users sent their media to a Moblog server via MMS or email. Recently software has become available which allows people to have the same rich experience they had while blogging from their PC. Some countries are even using moblogs for pedagogical purposes. The Singapore Government oraganizes annual Campus Moblogging competitions between its primary and secondary schools www.campusmoblog.com.sg
The art of the Moblog is that "a picture tells a thousand word." By posting pictures the Moblogger is able to allow the viewer to look through their eyes, to visually experience where he or she is and what he or she is doing. Words often do not describe what a picture can do very easily. Moblogging is becoming more widespread through the use of websites where anybody with a cameraphone and the ability to send pictures can create an account and participate by uploading pictures on the fly.
Since the explosion of Web 2.0 applications over the last few years, some have been discussing how this technology can be applied to mobile devices. Probably the first technology to cross over onto mobile devices was the blog, resulting in the term moblog. Ajit Jaokar’s Open Gardens blog, takes this further, suggesting adapted versions of del.icio.us and flickr for mobile devices. The usage of mobile devices can potentially affect tagging and sharing data. For example, tags for a visual image could be added at the point when the image is captured, based on physical location, time, and data from other users. Sharing data between mobile devices, for example using Bluetooth, would also depend on physical location: in fact data could be fixed to particular locations, a practice known as ‘air graffiti’ or ‘splash messaging’ and enabled by a combination of spatial information and mapping feeds. Other suggestions, including one for a 'pocket wiki' for syncing wikis written with mobile devices have also been put forward by the blog Web 2.5. While critics point to the difficulties of transferring Web 2.0 concepts such as open standards to the mobile web, advocates present it as a means of bringing information down to the user rather than pushing information up onto the web.
According to Wikipedia Mobile 2.0, refers to a perceived next generation of mobile internet services including social networking sites and wikis, that emphasise collaboration and sharing amongst users. In essence it refers to bringing Web 2.0 services to the mobile internet.
Characteristics of Mobile 2.0
* Social networking on the mobile * “Network as platform” — delivering (and allowing users to use) applications entirely through a mobile browser, or, for local applications, leveraging services on the web * Extensive use of User-Generated Content, so that the site is owned by its contributors * Leveraging services on the web via mashups * Leveraging to its fullest all the capabilities of the device, and the mobile context, delivering a rich mobile user experience
I’d appreciate your comments, additions, ideas on this topic. What does Mobile 2.0 consist of and what makes it different from what we have now?